Research Library

Biomechanical Effects of Spinal Manipulation

Beffa, R, Mathews, R. (2004) Does the adjustment cavitate the targeted joint? An investigation into the location of cavitation sounds. Journal of Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics, 27 (2), 118-122.

Bereznick, D., Ross, K. McGill, S. (2002)  The frictional properties at the thoracic skin-fascia interface: implications in spine manipulation.  Clinical Biomechanics, 17, 297-303.

Cassidy, J.D., Lopes, A.A., Yong-Hing, K. (1992)  The immediate effect of manipulation versus mobilisation on pain and range of motion in the cervical spine: a randomised controlled trial.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 15 (9), 570-575.

Colloca, C., Keller, T., Gunzburg, R. (2004)  Biomechanical and neurophysiological responses to spinal manipulation in patients with lumbar radiculopathy.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 27 (1), 1-15.

Cramer, G.D., Tuck, N.R., Knudsen, J.T. (2000)  Effects of side-posture positioning and side-posture adjusting on the lumbar zygapophyseal joints as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging: a before and after study with randomization.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 23, 380-394.

Gal, J., Herzog, W., Kawchuk, G., Conway, P., Zhang, Y. (1997)  Movements of vertebrae during manipulative thrusts to unembalmed human cadavers.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 20 (1), 30-40.

Haas, M. (1990a) The physics of spinal manipulation. Part I. The myth of F = ma.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 13 (4), 204-206.

Haas, M. (1990b) The physics of spinal manipulation. Part II. A theoretical consideration of the adjustive force.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 13 (5), 253-256.

Haas, M. (1990c)  The physics of spinal manipulation. Part III. Some characteristics of adjusting that facilitate joint distraction.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 13 (6), 305-308.

Haas, M. (1990d)  The physics of spinal manipulation. Part IV. A theoretical consideration of the physician impact force and energy requirements needed to produce synovial joint cavitation.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 13 (7), 378-383.

Herzog, W. (1993a)  The Physics of Spinal Manipulation: Work-Energy and Impulse-Momentum Principles.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 16 (1), 51-54.

Herzog, W., Zhang, Y.T., Conway, P.J., Kawchuk, G.N. (1993b)  Cavitation sounds during spinal manipulative treatments.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 16 (8), 523-526.  

Herzog W, Conway PJ, Kawchuk GN, Zhang Y, Hasler EM. (1993c) Forces exerted during spinal manipulative therapy. Spine, 18 (9), 1206-12.

Lee, R., McGregor, A., Bull, A., et al. (2005) Dynamic response of the cervical spine to posteroanterior mobilisation.  Clinical Biomechanics, 20, 228-231.

McGregor, A., Wragg, P., Gedroyc, W. (2001) Can interventional MRI provide an insight into the mechanics of a posterior-anterior mobilisation?  Clinical Biomechanics, 16, 926-929.

Ngan, J., Chow, D., Homes, A. (2005)  The kinematics and intra- and inter-therapist consistencies of lower cervical rotational manipulation.  Medical Engineering & Physics, 27, 395-401.

Ross, J., Bereznick, D., McGill, S. (2004) Determining cavitation location during lumbar and thoracic spinal manipulation: is spinal manipulation accurate and specific? Spine, 29, 1452-1457.

Triano, J. (1992)  Studies on the biomechanical effect of a spinal adjustment.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 15 (1), 71-75.

Van Schalkwyk, R., Parkin-Smith, G. (2000) A Clinical Trial Investigating the Possible Effect of the Supine Cervical Rotatory Manipulation and the Supine Lateral Break Manipulation in the Treatment of Mechanical Neck Pain: A Pilot Study.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 23(5), 324-331.

Unsworth, A., Dowson, D., Wright, Y. (1971)  Cracking joints.  Annals of Rheumatology & Disease, 30, 348-358.