Research Library

Forces Exerted During Spinal Manipulation

Bereznick, D., Ross, K. McGill, S. (2002)  The frictional properties at the thoracic skin-fascia interface: implications in spine manipulation.  Clinical Biomechanics, 17, 297-303.

Conway, P.J.W, Herzog, W., Zhang, Y., et al. (1993) Forces required to cause cavitation during spinal manipulation of the thoracic spine. Clinical Biomechanics, 8, 210-214.

Haas, M. (1990a) The physics of spinal manipulation. Part I. The myth of F = ma.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 13 (4), 204-206.

Haas, M. (1990b) The physics of spinal manipulation. Part II. A theoretical consideration of the adjustive force.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 13 (5), 253-256.

Haas, M. (1990c)  The physics of spinal manipulation. Part III. Some characteristics of adjusting that facilitate joint distraction.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 13 (6), 305-308.

Haas, M. (1990d)  The physics of spinal manipulation. Part IV. A theoretical consideration of the physician impact force and energy requirements needed to produce synovial joint cavitation.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 13 (7), 378-383.

Harms, M., Bader, D. (1997)  Variability of forces applied by experienced therapists during spinal mobilization.  Clinical Biomechanics, 12 (6), 393-399.

Herzog, W. (1993) The Physics of Spinal Manipulation: Work-Energy and Impulse-Momentum Principles.  Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 16 (1), 51-54.

Herzog, W., Zhang, Y.T., Conway, P.J., Kawchuk, G.N., (1993a) Cavitation sounds during spinal manipulative treatments. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 16 (8), 523-526.

Herzog, W., Kawchuk, G., Conway, P. (1993b) Relationship between preload and peak forces during spinal manipulative treatments. Journal of the Neuromusculoskeletal System, 1 (2), 52-58.

Herzog, W., Conway, P., Kawchuk, G., Zhang, Y. (1993c) Forces exerted during spinal manipulative therapy. Spine, 18 (9), 1206-1212.

Herzog, W., Kats, M., Symons, B. (2001) The effective forces transmitted by high-speed, low-amplitude thoracic manipulation. Spine, 26 (19), 2105-2111.

Kawchuk, G., Herzog, W., Hasler, E. (1992) Forces generated during spinal manipulative therapy of cervical spine: a pilot study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 15 (5), 275-278.

Lee, R., McGregor, A., Bull, A., et al. (2005) Dynamic response of the cervical spine to posteroanterior mobilisation.  Clinical Biomechanics, 20, 228-231.

McCarthy, P., Prudden, M., Byfield, D. (2002) An investigation of the manipulative parameters of postgraduate chiropractors. European Journal of Chiropractic, 50, 15-25.

McGregor, A., Wragg, P., Gedroyc, W. (2001) Can interventional MRI provide an insight into the mechanics of a posterior-anterior mobilisation?  Clinical Biomechanics, 16, 926-929.

Ngan, J., Chow, D., Homes, A. (2005)  The kinematics and intra- and inter-therapist consistencies of lower cervical rotational manipulation.  Medical Engineering & Physics, 27, 395-401.