Research Library

Lumbar Spine Manipulation Evidence

Assendelft, W., Morton, S., Yu, E., et al. (2003) Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Low Back Pain: A meta-analysis of effectiveness relative to other therapies. Annals of Internal Medicine, 138, 871-881.

Assendelft, W., Morton, S., Yu, E., et al. (2004) Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Low Back Pain. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1. Art. No.: DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000447.

Aure, O., Nilsen, J.,  Vasseljen, O. (2003) Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine, 28 (6), 525-532.

Avery, S., O’Driscoll, M. (2004) Randomised Controlled Trials on the Efficacy of Spinal Manipulation Therapy in the Treatment of Low Back Pain. Physical Therapy Reviews, 9, 146-152.

Begg, C., Cho, M., Eastwood, S., et al. (1996)  Improving the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials: the CONSORT statement.  Journal of the American Medical Association, 276, 637-9.

Bogduk, N. (1989)  Lumbar Dorsal Ramus Syndrome.  Medical Journal of Australia, 15, 537-541.

Brenner, A., Gill, N., Buscema, C., Kiesel, K. (2007) Improved activation of lumbar multifidus following spinal manipulation: a case report applying rehabilitative ultrasound imaging.  Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 37 (10), 613-619.

Bronfort, G., Haas, M., Evans, R., et al. (2004) Efficacy of Spinal Manipulation and Mobilisation for low back Pain and Neck pain: A systematic review and best evidence synthesis.  The Spine Journal, 4, 335-356.

Chaitow, L., Comeaux, Z., Dommerholt, J., et al. (2004). Efficacy of manipulation in Low Back Pain Treatment: The validity of meta-analysis conclusions. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 8, 25-31.

Cherkin, D., Deyo, R., Battie, M., et al.eet, J. & Barlow, W.  (1998). A Comparison of Physical Therapy, Chiropractic Manipulation, and Provision of an Educational Booklet for the Treatment of Patients with Low Back Pain. The New England Journal of Medicine, 339 (15), 1021-1029.

Cherkin, D., Sherman, K., Deyo, R., et al. (2003) A Review of the Evidence for the Effectiveness, Safety, and Cost of Acupuncture, Massage Therapy, and Spinal Manipulation for Back Pain. American College of Physicians, 138, 898-906.

Childs, J., Fritz, J., Flynn, T., et al. (2004) A clinical prediction rule to identify patients with low back pain most likely to benefit from spinal manipulation: a validation study.  Annals of Internal Medicine, 141 (12), 920-928.  

Childs, J., Flynn, T., Fritz, J. (2006) A perspective for considering the risks and benefits of spinal manipulation in patients with low back pain.  Manual Therapy, 11 (4), 316-320.

Christian, G., Stanton, G., Sissons, D., et al. (1988). Immunoreactive ACTH, beta-endorphin, and cortisol levels in plasma following Spinal Manipulative Therapy.  Spine, 13 (12), 1411-1417.

Clarke, M., Anderson, P., Chalmers, I. (2002) Discussion sections in reports of controlled trials published in general medical journals.  Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, 2799-801.

Croft, P., Macfarlane, G., Papegeorgiou, A., et al. (1998). Outcome of low back pain in general practice: A prospective study. British Medical Journal, 316 (7141),  1356-1359.

Descarreaux, M., Blouin, J., Drolet, M., et al. (2004) Efficacy of Preventative Spinal Manipulation for Chronic Low Back Pain and Related Disabilities: A preliminary Study.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 27 (8), 509-514.

Ernst, E., Harkness, E. (2001) Spinal Manipulation: A systematic Review of Sham- controlled, Double-blind, Randomised Clinical Trials. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 22 (4), 879-889.

Ernst, E. (2003) The definitive meta-analysis of spinal manipulation for back pain.  Focus on Alternative and Complimentary Therapies, 8, 436-7.

Ernst, E., Canter, P. (2003) Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation Treatment for Back Pain? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Physical Therapy Reviews, 8, 85-91.

Ernst, E., Canter, P. (2006) A systematic Review of Systematic Reviews of Spinal Manipulation. Journal of The Royal Society of Medicine, 99, 192-196.

European Commission, Cost Action B13 Management Committee (2004) European Guidelines for the management of acute non-specific low back pain in primary care. Available from:

European Guidelines for the management of Chronic, Non-specific Low Back Pain (2004) Amended 14th June 2005. Accessed via on 28th April 2007.

Fairbank, J., Couper, J., Davies, J., et al. (1980) The Oswestry Low Back Questionnaire. Physiotherapy, 66, 271-273.

Ferreira, M., Ferreira, P., Latimer, J., et al. (2002) Does Spinal Manipulative Therapy Help People with Chronic Low Back Pain? Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 48, 277-284.

Ferreira, P., Ferreira, M., Maher, C. et al. (2002) Effect of Applying Different  Levels of Evidence Criteria on Conclusions of Cochrane Reviews of Interventions for Low Back Pain. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 55, 1126-1129.

Flynn, T., Fritz, J., Whitman, J. (2002)  A clinical prediction rule for classifying patients with low back pain who demonstrate short-term improvement with spinal manipulation.  Spine, 27 (24), 2835-2843.

Flynn, T., Fritz, J., Wainner, R., Whitman, J. (2003) The audible pop is not necessary for successful spinal high-velocity thrust manipulation in individuals with low back pain.  Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84, 1057-1060.

Flynn, T., Childs, J., Fritz, J. (2006) The audible pop from high velocity thrust manipulation and outcome in individuals with low back pain. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 29 (1), 40-45.

Foster, N., Thompson, K., Baxter, G. et al. (1999) Management on Non-specific Low Back Pain by Physiotherapists in Britain and Ireland; A descriptive questionnaire of current clinical practice. Spine, 24 (13), 1332-1342.

Fritz, J., Irrgang, J. (2001) A Comparison of a Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale. Physical Therapy, 81 (2), 776-789.

Fritz, J., Whitman, J., Childs, J. (2005) Lumbar spine segmental mobility assessment: an examination of validity for determining intervention strategies in patients with low back     pain.  Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 86, 1745-1752.

Frost, H., Lamb, S., Doll, H., et al. (2004) Randomised Controlled Trial of Physiotherapy Compared with Advice for Low Back Pain. British Medical Jounal, 329, 708-711.

Gibbons, P., Tehan, P. (2001) Patient positioning and spinal locking for lumbar spine rotation manipulation.  Manual Therapy, 6 (3), 130-138.

Gibbons, P., Collins, A. (2001) Comparison of High Velocity Low Amplitude Manipulation with Cavitation versus Non-cavitation: Effect upon atlanto-axial rotation asymmetry in asymptomatic subjects. The Journal of Orthopaedic Medicine, 23 (1), 2-8.

Giles, L., Muller, R. (2003) Chronic Spinal Pain: A randomised clinical trial comparing medication, acupuncture and spinal manipulation. Spine, 28 (14), 1490-1503.

Gill, N., Teyhen, D., Lee, I. (2007) Improved contraction of the transversus abdominus immediately following spinal manipulation: a case study using real-time ultrasound imaging. Manual Therapy, 12, 280-285.

Grieve, G. (1989) Contra-indications to Spinal Manipulation and Allied Treatments. Physiotherapy, 75 (8), 445-453.

Haas, M., Goldberg, B., Aickin, M., Ganger, B. & Attwood, M. (2004) A Practice-based Study of Patients with Acute and Chronic Low back Pain Attending Primary Care and Chiropractic Physicians: Two-week to 48-month follow-up.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 27 (3), 160-169.

Handoll, H., Howe, T., Madhok, R. (2002) The Cochrane database of systematic reviews.  Physiotherapy, 88, 714-16.

Harvey, E., Burton, A., Moffet, J., et al. (2003) Spinal manipulation for low-back pain: a treatment package agreed by the UK chiropractic, osteopathy and physiotherapy professional associations. Manual Therapy, 8 (1), 46-51.

Hemmila, H., Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Levoska, S., et al. (2002) Long-term effectiveness of bone-setting, light exercise therapy and Physiotherapy for prolonged back pain: A randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 25 (2), 99-104.

Hurwitz, E., Morgenstern, H., Harber, P., et al. (2002) The effectiveness of physical modalities among patients with Low Back Pain Randomised to Chiropractic Care: Findings from the UCLA Low Back Pain Society.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 25 (1), 10-20.

Jadad, A., Moore, R., Carroll, D., et al. (1996) Assessing the Quality of Reports of Randomised Clinical trials: Is Blinding Necessary? Controlled Clinical Trials, 17, 1-12.

Koes, B., van Tulder, M., Ostelo, R., Burton, A., Waddell, G. (2001) Clinical guidelines for the Management of Low Back in Primary Care. Spine, 26 (22), 2504-2515.

Koes, B. (2004) How to evaluate manual therapy: value and pitfalls of randomised clinical trials. Manual Therapy, 9, 183-184.

Kotoulas, M. (2002) The use and misuse of the terms manipulation and mobilization in the literature establishing their efficacy in the treatment of lumbar spine disorders. Physiotherapy Canada, Winter, 53-61.

Licciardone, J.C., Stoll, SS.T., Fulda, K.G., Russo, D.P., Siu, J., Winn, W. & Swift Jr, J. (2003) Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain: A randomised control trial. Spine, 28 (13), 1355-1362.

McCarthy, C., Arnall, F., Strimpakos, N.,et al. (2004) The Biopsychosocial Classification of Non-specific Low Back Pain: A systematic Review. Physical Therapy Reviews, 9, 17-30.

Meade, T., Dyer, S., Browne, W., et al. (1995) Low Back Pain of Mechanical Origin: Randomised comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment. British Medical Journal, 300, 1431-1437.

Moore, A., Petty, N. (2001) Evidence-based practice: getting a grip and finding a balance.  Manual Therapy, 6, 195-6.

Mohensi-Bandpei, M., Critchley, J., Staunton, T., et al. (2006).  A prospective randomised controlled trial of spinal manipulation and ultrasound in the treatment of chronic low back pain.  Physiotherapy, 92 (1), 34-42.

New Zealand Guidelines for Acute Low Back Pain (2004). AAC Wellington: New Zealand.

Niemisto, L., Lahtinen-Suopanki, T., Rissanen, P., et al. (2003a) A randomised Trial of Combined Manipulation, Stabilising exercises, and Physician Consultation Compared to Physician Consultation Alone for Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine, 28 (19), 2185-2191.

Niemisto, L., Rissanen, P., Sarna, S.,et al. (2003b) Cost Effectiveness of Combined Manipulation, Stabilising exercises, and Physician Consultation Compared to Physician Consultation Alone for Chronic Low Back Pain: a prospective randomised trial with 2-year follow up. Spine, 30 (10), 1109-1115.

Philips, D., Twomey, l. (1996)  A comparison of manual diagnosis with a diagnosis established by a uni-level lumbar spinal block procedure.  Manual Therapy, 2 (1), 82-87.

Potter, L., McCarthy, C., Oldham, J. (2005) Physiological Effects of Spinal Manipulation: A review of proposed theories. Physical Therapy Reviews, 10, 163-170.

O’Sullivan, P. (2005) Diagnosis and Classification of Chronic low back pain disorders: Maladaptive movement and motor control impairments as underlying mechanism. Manual Therapy, 10, 242-255.

Rasmussen-Barr, E., Nilsson-Wikmar, L., Arvidsson, J. (2003) Stabilising Training Compared with Manual Treatment in Sub-acute and Chronic Low Back Pain. Manual Therapy, 8, 233-241.

RCGP (1999) Clinical guidelines for the management of acute low back pain.

Roland, M., Morris, R. (1983) A study of the Natural History of low Back Pain: Part 1: Development of a Reliable and Sensitive measure of Disability in Low Back Pain. Spine, 8, 141-144.

Sackett, D., Richardson, W., Rosenberg, W., et al. (1997) Evidence-based medicine.  Churchill Livingstone: New York.

Skargren, E., Carlsson, P., Oberg, B. (1998a) One-year Follow-up Comparison of the Cost effectiveness of Chiropractic and Physiotherapy as Primary Management for Back Pain: Subgroup analysis, recurrence, and additional health care utilisation. Spine, 23 (17), 1875-1884.

Skargren, E., Carlsson, P., Oberg, B. (1998b) Predictive Factors for 1-year outcome of low-back and Neck Pain in Patients Treated in Primary Care: Comparison between the treatment strategies Chiropractic and Physiotherapy. Pain, 77, 201-207.

Souvlis, T., Vincenzino, B.,  Wright, A. (2005) Neurophysiological effects of spinal manual therapy in Grieve’s modern manual therapy, The Vertebral Column. 3rd Ed. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.

Swinkels, I., van den Ende, C., van den Bosch.W., et al. (2005) Physiotherapy Management of Low Back Pain: Does Practice match the Dutch Guidelines? Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 51, 35-41.

Tonelli, M. (1999) In defense of expert opinion.  Academic Medicine, 74, 1187-92.

Triano, J., McGregor, M., Hondras, M. et al. (1995) Manipulative Therapy versus education Programs in Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine, 20, 948-955.

UK BEAM. (2004) United Kingdom Back Pain Exercise and Manipulation (UK BEAM) randomised trial: effectiveness of physical treatments for back pain in primary care. British Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/bmj.38282.669225.AE (published 29 November 2004).

van Trijffel, E., Anderegg, Q., Bossuyt, P., et al. (2005)  Inter-examiner reliability of passive assessment of intervertebral motion in the cervical and lumbar spine: a systematic review.  Manual Therapy, 10 (4), 256-269.

van Tulder, M., Assendelft, W., Koes, B., et al. (1997) Method Guidelines for Systematic Reviews in the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group for Spinal Disorders. Spine, 22 (20), 2323-2330.

van Tulder M., Furlan, A., Bombardier, C., et al. (2003) Updated method guidelines for systematic reviews in the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. Spine, 28 (12), 1290-1299.

Waagen, G., Halderman, S., Cook, G., et al. (1986) Short term Trial of Chiropractic Adjustments for the Relief of Chronic Low Back Pain. Manual Medicine, 2, 63-67.

Waddell, G (1987) A new clinical model for the treatment of low-back pain. Spine, 12, 632-644.