Research Library

Lumbar Spine Manipulation Evidence

Assendelft, W., Morton, S., Yu, E., et al. (2003) Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Low Back Pain: A meta-analysis of effectiveness relative to other therapies. Annals of Internal Medicine, 138, 871-881.

Assendelft, W., Morton, S., Yu, E., et al. (2004) Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Low Back Pain. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000447.pub.2. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000447.

Aure, O., Nilsen, J.,  Vasseljen, O. (2003) Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine, 28 (6), 525-532.

Avery, S., O’Driscoll, M. (2004) Randomised Controlled Trials on the Efficacy of Spinal Manipulation Therapy in the Treatment of Low Back Pain. Physical Therapy Reviews, 9, 146-152.

Begg, C., Cho, M., Eastwood, S., et al. (1996)  Improving the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials: the CONSORT statement.  Journal of the American Medical Association, 276, 637-9.

Bogduk, N. (1989)  Lumbar Dorsal Ramus Syndrome.  Medical Journal of Australia, 15, 537-541.

Brenner, A., Gill, N., Buscema, C., Kiesel, K. (2007) Improved activation of lumbar multifidus following spinal manipulation: a case report applying rehabilitative ultrasound imaging.  Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 37 (10), 613-619.

Bronfort, G., Haas, M., Evans, R., et al. (2004) Efficacy of Spinal Manipulation and Mobilisation for low back Pain and Neck pain: A systematic review and best evidence synthesis.  The Spine Journal, 4, 335-356.

Chaitow, L., Comeaux, Z., Dommerholt, J., et al. (2004). Efficacy of manipulation in Low Back Pain Treatment: The validity of meta-analysis conclusions. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 8, 25-31.

Cherkin, D., Deyo, R., Battie, M., et al.eet, J. & Barlow, W.  (1998). A Comparison of Physical Therapy, Chiropractic Manipulation, and Provision of an Educational Booklet for the Treatment of Patients with Low Back Pain. The New England Journal of Medicine, 339 (15), 1021-1029.

Cherkin, D., Sherman, K., Deyo, R., et al. (2003) A Review of the Evidence for the Effectiveness, Safety, and Cost of Acupuncture, Massage Therapy, and Spinal Manipulation for Back Pain. American College of Physicians, 138, 898-906.

Childs, J., Fritz, J., Flynn, T., et al. (2004) A clinical prediction rule to identify patients with low back pain most likely to benefit from spinal manipulation: a validation study.  Annals of Internal Medicine, 141 (12), 920-928.  

Childs, J., Flynn, T., Fritz, J. (2006) A perspective for considering the risks and benefits of spinal manipulation in patients with low back pain.  Manual Therapy, 11 (4), 316-320.

Christian, G., Stanton, G., Sissons, D., et al. (1988). Immunoreactive ACTH, beta-endorphin, and cortisol levels in plasma following Spinal Manipulative Therapy.  Spine, 13 (12), 1411-1417.

Clarke, M., Anderson, P., Chalmers, I. (2002) Discussion sections in reports of controlled trials published in general medical journals.  Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, 2799-801.

Croft, P., Macfarlane, G., Papegeorgiou, A., et al. (1998). Outcome of low back pain in general practice: A prospective study. British Medical Journal, 316 (7141),  1356-1359.

Descarreaux, M., Blouin, J., Drolet, M., et al. (2004) Efficacy of Preventative Spinal Manipulation for Chronic Low Back Pain and Related Disabilities: A preliminary Study.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 27 (8), 509-514.

Ernst, E., Harkness, E. (2001) Spinal Manipulation: A systematic Review of Sham- controlled, Double-blind, Randomised Clinical Trials. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 22 (4), 879-889.

Ernst, E. (2003) The definitive meta-analysis of spinal manipulation for back pain.  Focus on Alternative and Complimentary Therapies, 8, 436-7.

Ernst, E., Canter, P. (2003) Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation Treatment for Back Pain? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Physical Therapy Reviews, 8, 85-91.

Ernst, E., Canter, P. (2006) A systematic Review of Systematic Reviews of Spinal Manipulation. Journal of The Royal Society of Medicine, 99, 192-196.

European Commission, Cost Action B13 Management Committee (2004) European Guidelines for the management of acute non-specific low back pain in primary care. Available from: http://www.backpaineurope.org.

European Guidelines for the management of Chronic, Non-specific Low Back Pain (2004) Amended 14th June 2005. Accessed via http://ifomt.org on 28th April 2007.

Fairbank, J., Couper, J., Davies, J., et al. (1980) The Oswestry Low Back Questionnaire. Physiotherapy, 66, 271-273.

Ferreira, M., Ferreira, P., Latimer, J., et al. (2002) Does Spinal Manipulative Therapy Help People with Chronic Low Back Pain? Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 48, 277-284.

Ferreira, P., Ferreira, M., Maher, C. et al. (2002) Effect of Applying Different  Levels of Evidence Criteria on Conclusions of Cochrane Reviews of Interventions for Low Back Pain. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 55, 1126-1129.

Flynn, T., Fritz, J., Whitman, J. (2002)  A clinical prediction rule for classifying patients with low back pain who demonstrate short-term improvement with spinal manipulation.  Spine, 27 (24), 2835-2843.

Flynn, T., Fritz, J., Wainner, R., Whitman, J. (2003) The audible pop is not necessary for successful spinal high-velocity thrust manipulation in individuals with low back pain.  Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84, 1057-1060.

Flynn, T., Childs, J., Fritz, J. (2006) The audible pop from high velocity thrust manipulation and outcome in individuals with low back pain. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 29 (1), 40-45.

Foster, N., Thompson, K., Baxter, G. et al. (1999) Management on Non-specific Low Back Pain by Physiotherapists in Britain and Ireland; A descriptive questionnaire of current clinical practice. Spine, 24 (13), 1332-1342.

Fritz, J., Irrgang, J. (2001) A Comparison of a Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale. Physical Therapy, 81 (2), 776-789.

Fritz, J., Whitman, J., Childs, J. (2005) Lumbar spine segmental mobility assessment: an examination of validity for determining intervention strategies in patients with low back     pain.  Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 86, 1745-1752.

Frost, H., Lamb, S., Doll, H., et al. (2004) Randomised Controlled Trial of Physiotherapy Compared with Advice for Low Back Pain. British Medical Jounal, 329, 708-711.

Gibbons, P., Tehan, P. (2001) Patient positioning and spinal locking for lumbar spine rotation manipulation.  Manual Therapy, 6 (3), 130-138.

Gibbons, P., Collins, A. (2001) Comparison of High Velocity Low Amplitude Manipulation with Cavitation versus Non-cavitation: Effect upon atlanto-axial rotation asymmetry in asymptomatic subjects. The Journal of Orthopaedic Medicine, 23 (1), 2-8.

Giles, L., Muller, R. (2003) Chronic Spinal Pain: A randomised clinical trial comparing medication, acupuncture and spinal manipulation. Spine, 28 (14), 1490-1503.

Gill, N., Teyhen, D., Lee, I. (2007) Improved contraction of the transversus abdominus immediately following spinal manipulation: a case study using real-time ultrasound imaging. Manual Therapy, 12, 280-285.

Grieve, G. (1989) Contra-indications to Spinal Manipulation and Allied Treatments. Physiotherapy, 75 (8), 445-453.

Haas, M., Goldberg, B., Aickin, M., Ganger, B. & Attwood, M. (2004) A Practice-based Study of Patients with Acute and Chronic Low back Pain Attending Primary Care and Chiropractic Physicians: Two-week to 48-month follow-up.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 27 (3), 160-169.

Handoll, H., Howe, T., Madhok, R. (2002) The Cochrane database of systematic reviews.  Physiotherapy, 88, 714-16.

Harvey, E., Burton, A., Moffet, J., et al. (2003) Spinal manipulation for low-back pain: a treatment package agreed by the UK chiropractic, osteopathy and physiotherapy professional associations. Manual Therapy, 8 (1), 46-51.

Hemmila, H., Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Levoska, S., et al. (2002) Long-term effectiveness of bone-setting, light exercise therapy and Physiotherapy for prolonged back pain: A randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 25 (2), 99-104.

Hurwitz, E., Morgenstern, H., Harber, P., et al. (2002) The effectiveness of physical modalities among patients with Low Back Pain Randomised to Chiropractic Care: Findings from the UCLA Low Back Pain Society.  Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 25 (1), 10-20.

Jadad, A., Moore, R., Carroll, D., et al. (1996) Assessing the Quality of Reports of Randomised Clinical trials: Is Blinding Necessary? Controlled Clinical Trials, 17, 1-12.

Koes, B., van Tulder, M., Ostelo, R., Burton, A., Waddell, G. (2001) Clinical guidelines for the Management of Low Back in Primary Care. Spine, 26 (22), 2504-2515.

Koes, B. (2004) How to evaluate manual therapy: value and pitfalls of randomised clinical trials. Manual Therapy, 9, 183-184.

Kotoulas, M. (2002) The use and misuse of the terms manipulation and mobilization in the literature establishing their efficacy in the treatment of lumbar spine disorders. Physiotherapy Canada, Winter, 53-61.

Licciardone, J.C., Stoll, SS.T., Fulda, K.G., Russo, D.P., Siu, J., Winn, W. & Swift Jr, J. (2003) Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain: A randomised control trial. Spine, 28 (13), 1355-1362.

McCarthy, C., Arnall, F., Strimpakos, N.,et al. (2004) The Biopsychosocial Classification of Non-specific Low Back Pain: A systematic Review. Physical Therapy Reviews, 9, 17-30.

Meade, T., Dyer, S., Browne, W., et al. (1995) Low Back Pain of Mechanical Origin: Randomised comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment. British Medical Journal, 300, 1431-1437.

Moore, A., Petty, N. (2001) Evidence-based practice: getting a grip and finding a balance.  Manual Therapy, 6, 195-6.

Mohensi-Bandpei, M., Critchley, J., Staunton, T., et al. (2006).  A prospective randomised controlled trial of spinal manipulation and ultrasound in the treatment of chronic low back pain.  Physiotherapy, 92 (1), 34-42.

New Zealand Guidelines for Acute Low Back Pain (2004). AAC Wellington: New Zealand.

Niemisto, L., Lahtinen-Suopanki, T., Rissanen, P., et al. (2003a) A randomised Trial of Combined Manipulation, Stabilising exercises, and Physician Consultation Compared to Physician Consultation Alone for Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine, 28 (19), 2185-2191.

Niemisto, L., Rissanen, P., Sarna, S.,et al. (2003b) Cost Effectiveness of Combined Manipulation, Stabilising exercises, and Physician Consultation Compared to Physician Consultation Alone for Chronic Low Back Pain: a prospective randomised trial with 2-year follow up. Spine, 30 (10), 1109-1115.

Philips, D., Twomey, l. (1996)  A comparison of manual diagnosis with a diagnosis established by a uni-level lumbar spinal block procedure.  Manual Therapy, 2 (1), 82-87.

Potter, L., McCarthy, C., Oldham, J. (2005) Physiological Effects of Spinal Manipulation: A review of proposed theories. Physical Therapy Reviews, 10, 163-170.

O’Sullivan, P. (2005) Diagnosis and Classification of Chronic low back pain disorders: Maladaptive movement and motor control impairments as underlying mechanism. Manual Therapy, 10, 242-255.

Rasmussen-Barr, E., Nilsson-Wikmar, L., Arvidsson, J. (2003) Stabilising Training Compared with Manual Treatment in Sub-acute and Chronic Low Back Pain. Manual Therapy, 8, 233-241.

RCGP (1999) Clinical guidelines for the management of acute low back pain. http://www.rcgp.org.uk/rcgp/clinspec/guidelines/backpain.

Roland, M., Morris, R. (1983) A study of the Natural History of low Back Pain: Part 1: Development of a Reliable and Sensitive measure of Disability in Low Back Pain. Spine, 8, 141-144.

Sackett, D., Richardson, W., Rosenberg, W., et al. (1997) Evidence-based medicine.  Churchill Livingstone: New York.

Skargren, E., Carlsson, P., Oberg, B. (1998a) One-year Follow-up Comparison of the Cost effectiveness of Chiropractic and Physiotherapy as Primary Management for Back Pain: Subgroup analysis, recurrence, and additional health care utilisation. Spine, 23 (17), 1875-1884.

Skargren, E., Carlsson, P., Oberg, B. (1998b) Predictive Factors for 1-year outcome of low-back and Neck Pain in Patients Treated in Primary Care: Comparison between the treatment strategies Chiropractic and Physiotherapy. Pain, 77, 201-207.

Souvlis, T., Vincenzino, B.,  Wright, A. (2005) Neurophysiological effects of spinal manual therapy in Grieve’s modern manual therapy, The Vertebral Column. 3rd Ed. Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh.

Swinkels, I., van den Ende, C., van den Bosch.W., et al. (2005) Physiotherapy Management of Low Back Pain: Does Practice match the Dutch Guidelines? Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 51, 35-41.

Tonelli, M. (1999) In defense of expert opinion.  Academic Medicine, 74, 1187-92.

Triano, J., McGregor, M., Hondras, M. et al. (1995) Manipulative Therapy versus education Programs in Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine, 20, 948-955.

UK BEAM. (2004) United Kingdom Back Pain Exercise and Manipulation (UK BEAM) randomised trial: effectiveness of physical treatments for back pain in primary care. British Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/bmj.38282.669225.AE (published 29 November 2004). http://bmj.com.

van Trijffel, E., Anderegg, Q., Bossuyt, P., et al. (2005)  Inter-examiner reliability of passive assessment of intervertebral motion in the cervical and lumbar spine: a systematic review.  Manual Therapy, 10 (4), 256-269.

van Tulder, M., Assendelft, W., Koes, B., et al. (1997) Method Guidelines for Systematic Reviews in the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group for Spinal Disorders. Spine, 22 (20), 2323-2330.

van Tulder M., Furlan, A., Bombardier, C., et al. (2003) Updated method guidelines for systematic reviews in the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. Spine, 28 (12), 1290-1299.

Waagen, G., Halderman, S., Cook, G., et al. (1986) Short term Trial of Chiropractic Adjustments for the Relief of Chronic Low Back Pain. Manual Medicine, 2, 63-67.

Waddell, G (1987) A new clinical model for the treatment of low-back pain. Spine, 12, 632-644.